How does China's geography reflect both tremendous diversity and a remarkable continuity across history and regions? And how h Research Paper
|Category: Geography||Pages: 10||Type: Research Paper||Level: Undergraduate|
History of the Hukou System in China The family registration system can be traced back to the early Xia Dynasty (c. 2100 BCE – 1600 BCE). In later centuries, the initial family registers were quickly refined to eventually become into a basic structural organization that was used in controlling entire clans and families for the purposes of conscription, taxation and social control (Chan 199). How the Hukou System Affected the Geographical Distribution, diversity and Continuity of the Chinese Citizenry The hukou system mainly classifies the country’s citizenry using two basic criteria, the first being by one’s socioeconomic eligibility (agricultural o non-agricultural) and the second was based on one’s residential location. The hukou system was seen to favor persons who were registered as residing in cities and urban centers over the economically agriculturally based persons residing on the state farms and villages. This dual classification of the hukou registration is basically important for the easier facilitation of basic rural to urban migration via the bureaucratic barriers for rural-urban migrants. Using the residence classification, the Chinese state government has been able to strategically confine people’s activities into specific localities. Using the non-agricultural/agricultural mode of classification, the state has been able to successfully separate the Chinese society into two main parts (Chan 200-203). To further strengthen this division, there has been a general imposition of huge barriers that are meant to deter persons with agricultural hukou from converting their hukou status. Conversion from one hukou status to another is not merely a matter of personal choice and the status is normally inherited from that of a person’s mother.